Friday, May 8, 2015

This Day in Pop Culture: May 8th


The Hard Hat Riots, 1970


The period of American culture bearing the convenient handle "The Sixties" is a tangle of images and ideas which in retrospect seem easily identifiable from the preceding decade and the decade which followed. The tougher task is answering the more basic questions. What were the characteristics of The Sixties that made it so unique in American cultural history? When did The Sixties, the culture not the decade, begin? When and how did it end? As worthwhile as these questions are, I'm incapable of providing a complete answer to any of them, but today I'll try to provide a partial answer to the last.

Because on May 8th of 1970, the Hard Hat Riot occurred in Manhattan, throwing youths and adults, the educated and blue-collar workers, in to open battle, and ending forever the utopian dream of a student-led democratic reformation of American society.

In the American Left Movement, students had traditionally been relegated to the support role of organizing the industrial workers who would serve as the impetus of change. But several events of the 1960's - the Mississippi Summer Project, the Berkeley Free Speech Movement, the Columia University Protests, among others - convinced student organizations they could help lead social change.

The relationship between American students and establishment groups was conflicted throughout the second half of The Sixties. But by 1969 a common ground was beginning to form in the growing impatience with the war in Vietnam.

On April 30th, 1970, President Richard Nixon, who had campigned on a promise to end the war, announced an escalation of hostilities which would target North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia. Campuses erupted in a nation-wide student strike. Nixon, caught on tape referring to the students as "bums", added more fuel to their anger.

Kent State University in northwest Ohio was home to one of the more aggressive branches of the SDS, the Students for a Democratic Society. In the days following Nixon's announcement, Kent State students attacked police, burned the campus' ROTC, and ignored the curfew established by the governor. On May 4th, while trying to disperse a protest on campus, the National Guard inexplicably fired into the students, killing 4 and wounding 70.


The student left and its supporters were enraged, sparking further protests across the country. But the Kent State Shootings had the opposite effect on the other Americans. Many believed the shootings were justified, seeing the students as unappreciative of their priviledge and violating acceptable standards for protest. In a Gallup Poll taken after the shooting, 58% of the respondents blamed the students for the deaths, while only 27% blamed the National Guard.

In the wake of the riot, New York Mayor John Lindsay ordered the American flags on city buildings to be flown at half-mast. On May 8th, and estimated 1000 students gathered in lower Manhattan for a memorial to those killed at Kent State and to continue their protest against the war.

At noon, approximately 200 construction workers appearred at the protest, many wearing hard hats and carrying American flags. Some also carried pipes and crowbars. The workers quickly swept past the police.  Some forced their way into City Hall, climbing to the roof to fully raise the flag from half-mast. Many climbed over the police cars and attacked the students, punching them with their fists or beating them with their hardhats. Hundreds of bystandards shouted their encuragement to the workers. In total, about 60 people were injured, mostly students, along with a handful of police.


One week later 150,000 construction and other workers peacefully marched through New York as workers in the surrounding buildings showered the marchers with ticker tape.


Many student organizers were demoralized. Political activity on campuses lost energy. Those who maintained the fight became more radicalized, calling for the violent overthrow of the US government, and becoming even more isolated from mass politics. Nixon instinctively sensed the power of this new mainstream anger, and used it to justify increasingly aggressive tactics agains the Left.


Events of 1969 had begun to erode any hope of lasting cooperation between student and establishment groups. The random violence of the Days of Rage in Chicago. The seeming moral corruption of the counter-culture as symbolized by the Charles Manson murders, The killing of a young man by the Hell's Angels at the Altamount Music Festival. The early activities of the Weather Underground. But it was the tragedy at Kent State that proved to be the final fracturing of the generations.

For the New York Times coverage of the Hard Hat Riot, please click here.

For more images related to the Hard Hard Riot, please visit the KultureKat Pinterest board below:

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Thursday, May 7, 2015

In Passing: Mary Doyle Keefe, Model for Rosie the Riveter


Have you ever heard of Rosie the Riveter?

My guess is most have heard the name, but few remember the context in which she came to American culture. To a previous generation of Americans - my parent's generation - she was a character who symbolized the critical role of women who fought the battle of the home front during World War II.

The character of Rosie evolved from several independent sources. Her last, and perhaps most enduring manifestation was as the Norman Rockwell painting featured on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post May 29th edition.



In the painting, Rosie sits atop a piling, her rivet gun across her lap and a battered copy of Mein Kampf crushed under her penny loafers. Her overalls are rolled up at the ankles suggesting they were borrowed from the man who previously held the job, now fighting the Axis. Rosie is impossibly well-muscled, but Rockwell maintains her femininity with a glaze of nail polish, lipstick and rouge, while her compact and lace handkerchief peek out from a hip pocket.

The model for Rosie was Rockwell's 19 year old neighbor, Mary Doyle Keefe. Aside from the face and red hair, the petite Ms. Keefe bore no resemblance to the burly Rosie most people remember. And she never used a rivet gun.

Ms. Keefe died last week at the age of 92.


Though Rockwell and Ms. Keefe gave Rosie the Riveter a face, the painting was inspired by a 1942 Four Vagabonds hit song with the same name:

All the day long whether rain or shine
She’s a part of the assembly line
She’s making history, 
working for victory
Rosie the Riveter

Keeps a sharp lookout for sabotage
Sitting up there on the fuselage
That little frail can do more than a 
male will do
Rosie the Riveter

Rosie was propaganda to bolster morale and sell war bonds, but she resonated with the American public because she embodied the commitment, sacrifice and contribution of American women during the war. Between 1940 and 1945, the percentage of women in the US workforce increased from 27% to 37% and by 1945 one in four married women were working. By 1943, 65% of the workers in the US aircraft industry were women. And for most women, work was there way to support the sons, husbands, and boyfriends risking their lives in battle.

Of course when the boys came home, the women went home to their traditional roles where, 25 years later, the home front was their own battlefront.

Ms. Keefe's obituary, which includes a history of the painting can be found here.  And to hear the song by the Four Vagabonds with lyrics, go here.

For more pictures of other Rosie's, please check out the KultureKat Pinterest board:

Follow KultureKat's board Mary Doyle Keefe as Rosie the Riveter on Pinterest.